By Piet H. L. Bovy , Jean-Pierre Orfeuil Ilan Salomon
A Billion journeys an afternoon: culture and Transition in eu TravelPatterns involves twenty-four unique chapters built by means of a community of delivery execs in a coordinated demeanour. the 3 components of the ebook are: ecu Mobility styles; Dimensions of eu Mobility, and nationwide views. Mobility in fourteen international locations is defined and ten chapters of research examine the most important dimensions of commute throughout Europe, that's visible as a laboratory for delivery regulations.
A Billion journeys an afternoon: culture and Transition in eu TravelPatterns questions the distinctiveness of ecu go back and forth and shipping regulations and demonstrates that, in lots of methods, Europe isn't like different constructed economies. besides the fact that, there are facet dissimilarities inside of Europe. The authors take a deep examine the underlying elements which have an effect on trip habit, with the target of offering the mandatory details for coverage making. The comparative chapters of half II offer an research according to nationwide views of the function of the time size go back and forth; car possession and use; commuting; public shipping; and foreign go back and forth. additionally they assessment the shipping guidelines utilized in Europe, explaining why a few rules paintings in a few locations, whereas failing in others.
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Extra resources for A Billion Trips a Day: Tradition and Transition in European Travel Patterns
The day of the week, the times of departure and arrival, and the travel time, which can be divided into access/egress time, waiting time, and in-vehicle time. The mode (or the sequence of modes) used by the tripmaker. Walking has a specific status: walking is usually ignored if (and only if) another mode is used for the trip. g. car driver versus car passenger). The route as a combination of links on the network. Surveys may include some cost or fare information; the type of ticket on public transport, parking charges at the destination, tolls and is the trip paid by the tripmaker or by someone else?
Typical for Germany is its zero population growth effect but large ageing effect. In the case of rail travel in Germany, ageing more than outweighs the negative impact of car ownership growth. Denmark is an interesting case for its very low car ownership effects for both car use (positive, but small effect) and raH travel (negative, but small effect). For example, the growth in car kilometres per capita from 1970 to 1985 is less than half of that in other European countries, whereas the per capita growth in public transport modes is very much higher than anywhere else!
Europe is again in an intermediate position. 1 The European difference: safety, environment and urban modal split OECD Europe EEC EastEurope USA Japan Road casualtiesl million inhabitants (1988) 138 142 104 189 109 Transp. Energy Consumption Ton oil equiv. 57 Nox emission (Kg/inh) (1985) 20 19 35 6 Noise: % population 15 12 7 30 30-50 30-50 10-20 87 5-25 5-25 50-60 3 10-30 15-30 35-50 35-50 30-50 10 50-60 exposed to LEQ > 65dBA Modal share: % Car Modal share: % Public Modal share: % Soft modes ...
A Billion Trips a Day: Tradition and Transition in European Travel Patterns by Piet H. L. Bovy , Jean-Pierre Orfeuil Ilan Salomon